The standard thicknesses for skin and fat are 1mm and 5mm, respectively.
Standard adult skin exhibits a mean penetration force of approximately 2N. This is a typical penetration force for most skin on the human body (e.g., face, forearm, groin, etc.). Skin exhibiting greater penetration values is typically located in thicker or more callused areas of the body (e.g., abdomen, lower back, etc.).
The basic model construction employs our patented SynTissue® brand synthetic human tissues. These materials are designed on the basis of physical tests performed on actual living tissue. Each tissue is validated (e.g., tensile modulus, abrasion resistance, penetration force, coefficient of friction, thermal conductivity, dielectric constant, etc.) under the same physical conditions as the live tissue it is designed to simulate. The resulting synthetic tissue responds to stimulus much like the real living tissue.